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ACAI: Approaches to Classroom Assessment Inventory

A Tool for Professional Learning and Assessment Research 

What is this study about?

This SSHRC-funded research develops a  tool – the Approaches to Classroom Assessment Inventory – to assess teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment based on contemporary professional standards. Through a series of studies across contexts, this research has contributed to expanding notions of assessment literacy with implications for teacher practice. 

Why is this study important?

By identifying gaps in teachers’ assessment competency, professional learning structures can be constructed that promote positive classroom cultures that use assessment pedagogically to enhance student learning.  Accordingly, the results of this study will enable targeted teacher professional development aimed at leveraging classroom assessments as structures for promoting positive learning experiences and enhanced student achievement across Canadian schools

ACAI Development

The ACAI has been regularly reviewed and revised through various research studies and in consultations with collaborators around the world, including:

  • Michelle Dubek, PhD, OISE University of Toronto, Canada

  • Jill Willis, PhD, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

  • Christine Harrison, PhD, King's College, England

  • Bronwen Cowie, PhD, University of Waikato, New Zealand

  • Christopher Gareis, PhD, William and Mary, USA 

  • Nicole Barnes, PhD, Montclair State University, USA

  • Kay Uchiyama, PhD, University of West Florida, USA

  • Andrew Coombs, PhD, Memorial University, Canada

Teacher and Students in Science Class

What's your approach to classroom assessment?​

Selected Journal Publications

Coombs, A. J., Rickey, N, DeLuca, C., & Lui, S. (2022). Chinese teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment. Educational Research for Policy and Practice. doi: 10.1007/s10671-020-09289-z

Summary Full Article


DeLuca., C., Rickey, N., & Coombs, A. J. (2021). Exploring assessment across cultures: Teachers’ approaches to assessment in the U.S., China, and Canada. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1-26.

Summary Full Article


Coombs, A. J., DeLuca, C., & MacGregor, S. (2020). A person-centered analysis of teacher candidates’ approaches to assessment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 87. Online first. DOI:

Summary Full Article


DeLuca, C., Coombs, A. J., MacGregor, S., & Rasooli, A. (2019). Toward a differential and situated view of assessment literacy: Studying teachers’ responses to classroom assessment scenarios. Frontiers in Education, 4(94), 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/feduc.2019.00094

Summary Full Article


DeLuca, C., Coombs, A. J., & Ge, J. (2019). Former à évaluer les élèves en classe: Une perspective canadienne sur les programmes de formation initiale des enseignants [Training to Assess Students in the Classroom: A Canadian Perspective on Initial Teacher Education Programs]. Administration et Éducation,165(1), 249-255.

Summary Full Article

DeLuca, C., Coombs, A., & LaPointe-McEwan, D. (2019). Assessment mindset: Exploring the relationship between teacher mindset and approaches to classroom assessment. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 61, 159-169.

Infographic Summary Full Article

Coombs, A., DeLuca, C., & LaPointe-McEwan, D. (2018). Changing approaches to classroom assessment: An empirical study across teacher career stages. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 134-144. Infographic Summary Full Article

DeLuca, C., Valiquette, A., Coombs, A., LaPointe-McEwan, D., & Luhanga, U. (2018). Teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment: A large-scale survey. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(4), 355-375. Infographic Summary Full Article

DeLuca, C., LaPointe, D., & Luhanga, U. (2016). Teacher assessment literacy: a review of international standards and measures. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 28(3), 251-272. Infographic Summary Full Article


DeLuca, C., LaPointe-McEwan, D., & Luhanga, U. (2016). Approaches to classroom assessment inventory: A new instrument to support teacher assessment literacy. Educational Assessment, 21(4), 248-266.

Infographic Summary Full Article

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